Makalah English – Al-Qur’an At The Prophet and Companions Period

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

 

1.1  Background

Al-Qur’anul miracle of Prophet Muhammad Karim is the great and eternal. Miracles are always reinforced by the progress of science. He revealed to the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad SAW to remove humans from the dark atmosphere towards the light, and guide them to the straight path.

In the historical record can be proved that the codification process and the writing of the Qur’an can guarantee the purity of confidence. Al-Qur’an written since the Prophet was alive. So Revelation to the Prophet, the Prophet ordered his companions direct revelation writers to write carefully. Once they write, and memorize them once they resume practicing.

Unrelenting liberals tried to block the return of the Muslims implementing Islamic Law. One way is to make the Muslims in doubt the authenticity Mushhaf al-Qur `an as the revelation of God. If the Muslims have doubts about originality al-Qur `an as the revelation of God, the Islamic law could be inhibited implementation.

Evil men, many take advantage of the ignorance of the public about the history of writing, collecting and copying al-Qur `an. Therefore, it is very important we know the writing of the Qur’an during the Prophet and his companions.

1.2 Problem Formulation

1. How did the writing of the Qur’an at the period of Prophet Muhammad?

2. How did the writing of the Qur’an at the period of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq?

3. How did the writing of the Qur’an at the period of Ustman Bin Affan?

4. How did the writing of the Qur’an at the period of Ali Bin Abi Tholib?

 

1.3 Objectives

1. To know the writing of the Qur’an at the period of Prophet Muhammad;

2. To know the writing of the Qur’an at the period of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq;

3. To know the writing of the Qur’an at the period of Ustman Bin Affan;

4. To know the writing of the Qur’an at the period of Ali Bin Abi Tholib.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

2.1 The writing of the Qur’an at the period of Prophet Muhammad

At this stage a lot more reliance on rote learning rather than rote reliance on paper because the Companions are very strong and fast in the next few people who could read and write and ingredients. Therefore, anyone from among those who heard the verse, she would memorize or write initiated with modest means in the stem of the palm, leather strips, surface rock or camel scapula. This shows how much trouble that bear the friends in the writing of the Qur’an. The tools used writing not reasonably available to them, in addition to these facilities only. But the silver lining, writing of the Qur’an This further adds powerful memorizing them.[1]

In Sahih Bukhari[2] from Anas Ibn Malik radi ‘anhu that the Prophet sent seventy men called Al-Qurra’. They were ambushed and killed by the two villages of the tribe of Banu Sulaym; Ri’l and Dzakwan at the well Ma’unah. But among the friends in addition to their many penghafal the Qur’an, such as four caliphs, Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud, Salim Abu Hudzaifah former slaves, Ubay Ibn Ka’b, Mu’adh Ibn Jabal, Zayd ibn Thabit and Abu Darda radi ‘anhum.

Prophet Muhammad pointed to several friends who are good write-read as the author of revelation, including four prominent companions of the Prophet, who later became caliph after the Prophet’s death, Mu’awiya, Zaid ibn Thabit, Ubay ibn Ka’b and Khalid ibn al-Walid.[3] The author of Revelation was ordered by the Prophet to write every revelation and put the serial-order as directed by the instructions prophet of God through the angel Gabriel. Angel Gabriel recited the Qur’an to Rosululloh on the nights in Ramadan every year.

Then, all the verses of the Qur’an were written in the presence of the Prophet in a variety of objects, stored in the Prophet’s house in a state still scattered verses, yet in communion in one Mushaf.

Manuscripts are reinforced with texts created by the writers of revelation to each individual and supported by the recitation of the friends who are not few in number. So everything that could guarantee the Qur’an to be maintained complete and pure, according to the promise of Allah Almighty in Surat al-Hijr: 9, which means:

“Behold I have lowered the alert (al-Qur’an) and surely I have maintain (secured).

The Qur’an has been memorized and written in a copy of the arrangement of the verses and letters separated, or are ordered verses only, each letter is in a separate sheet and the seven letters (sab’atu ahruf), but Al Qur’an has not been collected in one complete Mushaf, because if the revelation down immediately memorized by the qurra ‘and is written by the authors.[4]

There was still no charges in a condition to write an Mushaf, because the Prophet was always waiting for the revelation from time to time. Sometimes there is also abrogated verses (mengahapuskan) verses down beforehand. The composition according to the Qur’an does not order nuzulnya, but every verse written down in writing in accordance with the direction of the Prophet-he is usually instructed that the text should be put in the mail anu anu. Suppose that in the Quran the Prophet was completely collected in one Mushaf, will certainly bring change, every time there’s a revelation down.

There are several reasons, why the Prophet in the Qur’an has not been written and recorded into one Mushaf, including: first, the penghafal among friends there are many in number, and second, the Prophet was always waiting for the revelation from time to time; Third , the possibility of a verse in the Quran which abrogated some laws that have fallen before.[5]

Az-Zarkasyi said, “Al-Quran is not written in a copy of the days of the Prophet so that he does not change at any time. Therefore, writing done later after the completion of the Qur’an down all, by the death of Rasululloh. “

Imam al-Zarkasyi statement in line with the opinion of al-Khatibi as saying:
“Ever since the Qur’an was revealed to Muhammad Rasululloh died, he did not collect the Qur’an in the Mushaf because it is still waiting for the verse menasikh Part of the law contained in it or the menasikh reading. Then Allah Almighty inspired the Khulafa al-Rashidun to collect the Qur’an in the Mushaf, and this is a promise of Allah to preserve the continuity of the Qur’an to the Islamic Ummah “.

In this sense interpreted what was narrated from Zaid bin Thabit who said, “Rosululloh has died, the Qur’an was not collected at all.” That is, the verses and letters have not been collected in an orderly manner in a Mushaf.

Al-Khatthabi said, “Rasululloh not collect the Qur’an in the Mushaf it because he always waited clause that removes the most of the laws or bacannya. After a period of decline ended with the death of Rasululloh, then Allah inspired the writing of a complete copy of the Rashidun Khulafa’ur accordance with his promise to the people’s right of maintenance guarantee. This happened the first time during the consideration of the proposed Abu Bakr Umar. ”

Thus, jam’u Al-Qur’an (the collection of the Qur’an) in the Prophet’s time is divided into two:

  1. Al Jam’u fis Sudur.

Rasulullah very like a revelation, he always waited for the revelation with a sense of longing, then memorize and understand. Exactly as promised by Allah in surah Al-Qiyamah paragraph 17, as follows:

“Indeed, we were the top collecting dependents (in the chest), and (to make you good at) to read it.” (Surah Al-Qiyamah: 17).

Therefore, the Prophet Muhammad was a hafiz (penghafal) Qur’an first and is the best example for our companions in memorizing, as generalization their love of religion and other fundamental treatise. Whenever the Prophet received a revelation, his companions memorized directly outside the head.

  1. Al Jam’u fis Suthur.

In addition to the familiar, he also raised the writers of the revelation of the Qur’an from the leading companions like Ali, Mu’awiyah, Ubay ibn Ka’b and Zaid bin Sabit. When the verse down, he ordered them to write and show where the verse in sura, so the writing on the sheet that helps memorization in the heart.

The process of writing the Qur’an to the Prophet Muhammad SAW is very simple. They use simple stationery and form hurl wood, palm midrib, bones and various other places. In addition to the secretary of the Prophet Muhammad, his companions are also done without the knowledge of the Prophet Muhammad.

2.2 The writing of the Qur’an at the period of Abu Bakar Ash-Shiddiq

After Rasululloh SAW death, then submitted to the Caliphate of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. At the beginning of his reign, Abu Bakr faced with big problems very disturbing thoughts. Among many apostates of Islam, the rise of false prophets, and refused to pay Zakat. Later, Abu Bakr unify their determination to fight the war by sending troops under the command of Khalid Bin Walid. Among the troops who berjumalah 4000 people, most are the friends memorize the Qur’an. Then came the war against al-Kadzab Musaylima followers. Which then war is called a war of Yamamah. In the battle, about 70 of memorize the Qur’an fall. Even another report mentions the Quran memorize fallen to 500 people.[6]

So Abu Bakr RA ordered to collect the Qur’an in order not to be lost. In Sahih Bukhari[7] mentioned that Umar Ibn Khattab was a point to Abu Bakr after the completion of the war Yamamah. Abu Bakr did not want to do it for fear of sin, so that Umar raised his eyes constantly until Allah opened Abu Bakr’s door of the heart for it, he then called Zaid Ibn Thabit, Abu Bakr stood next to Umar, Abu Bakr said to Zaid:

“Surely you are a young and resourceful brilliant, we did not meragukannmu, you used to write the revelations for the Prophet, then now look for the Qur’an and collect!”
Zaid said:

“So I was looking for and collecting the Qur’an from the stem of the palm, the surface rocks and from memory the people. The manuscripts are in the hands of Abu Bakr until he died, then held by Umar until his death, and then held by Hafsa Bint Umar RA. Narrated by Bukhari at length.

There are some basic considerations why Abu Bakr chose Zaid bin Thabit as the person assigned to collect the Qur’an, including: first, Zaid bin Thabit Al-Qur’an including penghafal second, Zaid bin Thabit witnessed the meeting of the “last” of Al -Qur’an; Third, Zaid bin Thabit, including writers for Rasululloh revelation, and the fourth, Zaid Bin Thabit was an intelligent, wara ‘, noble, steadfast in the faith, uphold the mandate.[8]

In performing its duties, Zaid Bin Thabit not alone. He is supported by Umar Bin Abu Bakar Khottob upon request. Zaid to be very thorough and careful. He does not just take away from the rote of the friends, but also by writing. Zaid prudence in his duties is reflected in his words: “And I got late surah at-Tawbah to Abu Khuzaimah al-Ansari, who I do not get the others.”[9]

In the process of collecting the Qur’an, Zaid would not accept from someone about the Quran before witnessed by two witnesses. Thus, the method used Zaid Bin Thabit the process of collecting the Qur’an includes several principles: first, referring to the Mushaf owned by Rasululloh SAW, secondly, by memorizing the Companions; Third, do not accept anything written before witnessed by two witnesses; fourth, did not receive the recitation of the Companions except what they had received from Rosululloh; fifth, always ask for the opinion of the senior companions and consulted them; sixth, having collected a Mushaf, Umar gathered the Companions in the mosque and read to them from the beginning of surah al-Fatihah by the end of surah al-Nas.

The task of collecting the Qur’an can be implemented by Zaid in less than 1 year, ie between Yamamah after the war and before the death of Abu Bakr. Thus, tercatatlah in history, that of Abu Bakr as the first place to collect the Qur’an in suhuf, Umar as the man who first had the idea to collect the Qur’an, and Zaid Bin Thabit first as a writing implement and the collection of the Qur’an in one Mushaf.[10]

Manuscripts (suhuf) al-Qur’an by Zaid was later recorded by Abu Bakr. After Abu Bakr’s death, saved by Umar. Then stored Hafsah, daughter of Umar Bin Hafiz Khottob the Qur’an and clever read-write.

The privilege codification of the Qur’an during Abu Bakr:
1. The entire verses of the Qur’an were collected and written in a copy of the research based on a careful and thorough;

2. Abu Bakr manuscripts contains only verses of the Qur’an are not mansukh dinasakh tilawahnya or reading;

3. The entire verse of the Qur’an written on it has been recognized kemutawatirannya;
4. Manuscripts are gathering all the verses of the Koran has been written on separate sheets and scattered;

5. Orderly verses like the one today, but the order of sura-surahnya not regular;
6. Manuscripts include seven dialects (ahruf sab’ah) as the Qur’an was revealed.[11]

The Muslims were then all agreed to what was done by Abu Bakr, they regard his actions as a positive value and virtue to Abu Bakr, until Ali Ibn Abi Talib RA said: “The greatest reward is the Mushaf Al-Qur’an is Abu Bakr, may Allah have mercy to Abu Bakr because he was the one who first collects the Book of Allah.

2.3 The writing of the Qur’an at the period of Utsman Bin Affan

During the caliphate of Uthman bin Affan Alqur `an is collected in the form of the manuscripts. And called the Mushaf Al-Imam. The copies are sent to the cities. Writing during Alqur `an is called the` rasm Ottomans as a form of reliance on Uthman ibn Affan. This period is also known as the beginning of the science of Rasm Alqur `an.

In the reign of Uthman, differences of reading al-Quran among Muslims, and if left alone will schism in the Muslim community. The friend read some verses of the Quran with words (pronunciation) different despite having the same meaning. According to them, this difference does not change the meaning of reading al-Quran. Therefore, various readings they recognized by the Prophet Muhammad. But after his death, this issue turns more pointed, ie in the time of Abu Bakr ra and worse still in the time of Uthman, until there percek-cokan between teachers and students. The Qurra’dan hufazh split into Sham, Iraq, Yemen, Armenia Azribijan. And a further increase of this difference is the transformation of language and acculturation, as neighboring nations or among non-Arab nation itself that tribes are not heredity Mudhar.[12]

Given this, then, a friend suggested to the Caliph Hudzaifah uniform for immediate reading of the Koran with a uniform way of writing the Quran. And still there is a difference when it should be still within the limits of the ma’tsur (taught by the Prophet), because of the al-Quran was revealed with seven kinds dialeg Arabic language at the time. Uthman to take steps to move to collect the points (writings of al-Quran) and finally collected the Qur’an penghafal reliable.[13]

With the above suggestions, Caliph Uthman accepted then form a committee consisting of Zaid bin Thabit, Sa’id ibn al-‘Ash, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, and Abdurrahman ibn al-Harith bin Hisham, headed by Zaid bin Thabit and assigned to suhuf copy of the Koran kept by Hafsa. Suhuf Mushaf Hafsah copied into the amount of some fruits that are also referred to as the Mushaf Al-Imam and Islam spread to areas such as the area of ​​Mecca, Sham, Yemen, Bahrain, Basra and Kuffah even throughout the Islamic regions accompanied by instructions that all suhuf and Manuscripts al-Quran Mushaf ‘Uthman different must be destroyed / burned.

After the committee’s task is completed, suhuf Hafsah finally burned after his death, the goal is to secure uniformity of Mushaf Al-Quran which has been cultivated by the Caliph Uthman copied from the Mushaf Hafsah and also to avoid a sense of doubt of Muslims in the future because there two kinds of texts.[14]

Uthman It has taken a lot and he did not stop there, but also called them (one by one) to be interviewed: “Have you heard the Prophet dictated to you? “The man replied: “Yes” . Uthman asked again: “Who can write?” The people replied: “Writers Prophet, Zaid ibn Thabit”. Uthman asked again: “Who is the Arab nation?” They said: “Sa’id bin Ash”. And dialeg resembling the Prophet. Uthman said: “It should be dictating Said, and Zaid who wrote”.

This is the real business of Uthman, next-Mushaf ‘Uthman attention Manuscripts that have been collected at the time of Abu Bakr and Umar at the proposal of Manuscripts-Manuscripts that exist in manuscripts to Hafsah which is seen as the first to hold true.

From the discussion above is not the slightest dispute between Said and Zaid, and both have also found what had been gathered in Abu Bakr and Umar, Uthman while collecting for the second time.[15]

Manuscripts were written during Uthman pasa not striped and dotted. Because it can be read with one qiraat the seventh. After many people besides the Arabs into Islam, there is injury to start reading. So there arose a fear of the clerics themselves. So when it Abihi bin Ziyad asked Abul Aswad (chairman thabi’in) make punctuation. Abu Aswad made its mark in the form of a letter giving final line of the sentences just by wearing a point above the line above and below the point as a line under and beside the point as the sign on the front, and two points as two lines marked.

From Abu Aswad above system was not able to avoid injury reading it to the end to distinguish one letter to another point and had to be aligned sentences with taste.[16]

2.4 The writing of the Qur’an at the period of Ali Bin Abi Tholib

In the book of Ibn Al-Fihrist Ndim history suggests Munada That comes from Ibn Hasan ibn Abbas, of Abdurrahman bin Hammad, from Dhahir bin Hakam, from Abdul-Khair of Ali ibn Abi Talib, that he saw signs of pessimism in the face of the crowd when Prophet died. Then he vowed not to leave the house before the collection of the Qur’an is completed, and eventually he stayed at home for three days in a row and the verses of the Qur’an were collected entirely. This is the first Manuscripts, written from memory Ali bin Abi Tholib. Then stored by the family Ja’far r.a.

In recent history was noted that Ali ibn Abi al-Quran Tholib gather immediately after the Prophet’s death, then he transported on the camel and said: “This is al-Quran has muster!”[17]

Earlier in the period chalip of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Abu Aswad Al-Duali got an order of the Caliph Ali to write the rules Nahwu, as pemilihara in speaking and to keep Alqur `an.[18] Meanwhile, the person who first made a mark point to distinguish letters with the same shape (nuqathu harf, such as the letter ‘ba’, ta ‘and tsa’ “) is Nasr ibn Asim (d. 89H) on a proposal Hajaj ibn Yusuf al- Tsaqafi, one of the governor’s State of the Umayyad dynasty (40-95 H).[19] While signs syakal introduced by Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi (d. 170 H). This period is known as the beginning of the emergence of the science I `rab Alqur` an. The best friends continue the tradition narrated mutual understandings and interpretations of some verses Alqur `an. Among the commentators are well known among the companions are: Abu Bakr, Umar Bin Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib, Ibn Mas `ud, Ibn Abbas, Ubayy bin Ka` ab, Zaid ibn Thabit, Abu Musa al-Ash `ari, and Abdullah bin Zuber.

CHAPTER III
CLOSING

 

3.1 Conclusion

Writing the Qur’an actually been done since the time of Prophet Muhammad was still alive, but at the time of writing is still in very simple media, in the form of dried palm midrib, on the rocks, animal skin, and so forth.

As for the collection to be a form of book starts when Caliph Abu Bakr and takes less than 1 year, and then forwarded by the Caliph Uthman Ibn Affan.

After the first four caliphs writing of the Qur’an is growing rapidly, with the affixing punctuation such as periods, and syakal, as well as the addition of the ornaments, and the identity of the letter (Madaniyah, Makiyah, paragraph number, no letters and no sequential order paragraph). Along with the flow of time, the writing of the Qur’an continues to grow, until recently, many of us find the Qur’an to digital form or software, with search engines letters and verses, as well as often equipped with translation.

3.2 Advice

As a form of gratitude we, as Muslims should be harder to read and practice the teachings of the content contained in the Qur’an. As the companions of the Prophet who had been trying to collect, transcribe, and smoothing arrangement contents of the Qur’an but it does not change a single word when the initial contents down to the Prophet Muhammad SAW. May the blessings of Allah be with him all the.

REFERENCES

 

Al Abyari Ibrahim.1993.Sejarah Al-Qur’an.Semarang: Dina Utama

Ash Shddieqy Teungku M.H.2000.Sejarah dan Pengantar Ilmu Al-Quran dan Tafsir.Semarang: PT Pustaka Rizki Putra

Az-Zanjani Abu Abdullah.1993.Wawasan Baru Tarikh Al-Qur’an.Bandung: Mizan

Al-Qaththan, Syaikh Manna’.2006.Pengantar Studi Ilmu Al-Qur’an.Jakarta Timur: Pustaka Al-Kautsar

Ichwan, Muhammad Nor.2001.Memasuki Dunia Al-Qur’an.Semarang: Lubuk Raya

Zuhdi, Masjfuk.1997.Pengantar Ulumul Quran.Surabaya: Bina Ilmu

 


[1] Syaikh Manna’ Al-Qaththan.2006.Pengantar Studi Ilmu Al-Qur’an (hal 156)

[2] Diriwayatkan oleh Bukhari, Kitab Al-Jihad, Bab Al-Aunu Bil Madad, hadits nomor 3064

[3] Zuhdi, Masjfuk.1997.Pengantar Ulumul Qur-an (hal 14)

[4] Syaikh Manna’ Al-Qaththan.2006.Pengantar Studi Ilmu Al-Qur’an (hal 157)

[5] Ichwan, Muhammad Nor.2001.Memasuki Dunia Al-Qur’an (hal 107)

[6] Ichwan, Muhammad Nor.2001.Memasuki Dunia Al-Qur’an (hal 109)

[7] Diriwayatkan oleh Bukhari, Kitab At-Tafsir, Bab Qauluhu Ta’ala : Laqad jaa’akum Rasuulun Min Anfusikum Aziizun Alaihi Maa Anittum … al-ayat

[8] Ichwan, Muhammad Nor.2001.Memasuki Dunia Al-Qur’an (hal 111)

[9] Syaikh Manna’ Al-Qaththan.2006.Pengantar Studi Ilmu Al-Qur’an (hal 160)

[10] Zuhdi, Masjfuk.1997.Pengantar Ulumul Qur-an (hal 16)

[11] Ichwan, Muhammad Nor.2001.Memasuki Dunia Al-Qur’an (hal 114)

[12] Abu Abdullah Az.Zanjani.1993.Wawasan Baru Tarikh Al-Quran (hal 88)

[13] Ibrahim al Abyari.1993.Sejarah Al-Quran (hal 73)

[14] Masjfuk Zuhdi.1982.Pengantar Ulumul Quran (hal 17)

[15] Ibrahim al Abyari.1993.Sejarah Al-Quran (hal 72)

[16] Teungku Muhammad Hasby.2000.Sejarah dan Pengantar Ilmu Al-Quran dan Tafsir (hal 90)

[17] Abu Abdullah Az-Zanjani.1993.Wawasan Baru Tarikh Al-Quran (hal 94)

[18] Sebagian berpendapat bahwa yang berinisiatif memberi tanda baca I’rob adalah Muawiyah ibn Abi Sofyan.

[19] Sebagian riwayat menyebutkan bahwa: Abdul Malik bin Marwan memerintahkan kepada Al-Hajjaj (Gubernur Iraq saat itu), kemudian Al-Hajjaj meminta Nashr ibn Ashim dan Hay ibn Ya’mar untuk membubuhkan tanda titik pada huruf yang sama bentuknya.

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